Monday, December 16, 2019

Causality and Effect Free Essays

CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY Another common method of organizing an essay is by cause and effect. In a cause and effect essay, you discuss the reasons for something, and then you discuss the results. Cause and effect essays are concerned with why things happen (causes) and what happens as a result (effects). We will write a custom essay sample on Causality and Effect or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is a common method of organizing and discussing ideas. The following are examples of typical cause and effect essay topics: * Causes and effects of computer revolution * Causes and effects of global warming * Causes for the popularity of fast food restaurants * Reasons for the increase in inflation Effects of illiteracy * Technology’s effect on human freedom and happiness In fact, cause and effect (which can also be called reasons and results) is one of the most used forms of organization in academic writing. STEPS IN WRITING CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAYS 1. Distinguish between cause and effect. To determine causes, ask: â€Å"Why did this happen? † To identify effects, ask: â€Å"What happened because of this? † The following is an example of one cause producing one effect: Cause: You are out of gas. Effect: Your car won’t start. Sometimes, many causes contribute to a single effect or many effects may result from a single cause. The following are examples: Causes: Liked business in high school Salaries in the field are high Have an aunt who is an accountant Am good with numbers Effect: Choose to major in accounting Cause: Reduce work hours Effects: Less income Employer is irritated More time to study More time for family and friends However, most situations are more complicated. The following is an example of a chain reaction: Thinking about friend†¦forgot to buy gas†¦car wouldn’t start†¦missed math exam†¦failed math course. 2. Develop your thesis statement. State clearly whether you are discussing causes, effects, or both. Introduce your main idea, using the terms â€Å"cause† and/or â€Å"effect†. 3. Find and organize supporting details. Back up your thesis with relevant and sufficient details that are organized. You can organize details in the following ways: * Chronological: Details are arranged in the order in which the events occurred. * Order of importance: Details are arranged from least to most important or vice versa. * Categorical: Details are arranged by dividing the topic into parts or categories. 4. Use appropriate transitions. To blend details smoothly in cause and effect essays, use the transitional words and phrases listed below. For Causes: First, second, because, due to, one cause is, another is, since, for, etc. For Effects: Consequently, as a result, thus, resulted in, one result is, another is, therefore, etc. ORGANIZING the â€Å"CAUSE and EFFECT ESSAY† There are basically two ways to organize a cause and effect essay: â€Å"Block† organization and â€Å"Chain† organization. The former one is widely used in academic writing, whereas the latter is used in writing about topics such as scientific experimentation. In block organization, you first discuss all of the causes as a block (in one, two or three paragraphs, depending on the number of the causes). Then you discuss all of the effects together as a block. In chain organization, you discuss a first cause and its effect, a second cause and its effect, and a third cause and its effect in a chain. BLOCK TYPE| CHAIN TYPE| Introduction| Introduction| 1st Cause| 1st Cause Effect| 2nd Cause| 2nd Cause Effect| Transition Paragraph| 3rd Cause Effect| 1st Effect| Conclusion| 2nd Effect| 3rd Effect| Conclusion| BLOCK ORGANIZATION Below is an example of an essay â€Å"Turkey’s admission to the EU† written in block organization. This is the pattern| This is how the sample outline looks| Introduction * Introduction of general topic * Thesis statement * Specific areas to be covered in this essay| Introduction * Background information about Turkey’s attempts to be a member of EU. * There are two main reasons for Turkey to be such a good candidate in order to be admitted to the EU: its economic development and unique geopolitical position * This essay will cover first causes then effects| Essay section I (Causes) * Cause 1 a) Subsection b) Subsection * Cause 2 a) Subsection b) Subsection| * Causes of Turkey’s being a good candidate for the EU. ) Progress in economy a) Increased welfare rate b) The increase in the GDP 2) Unique geopolitical position a) Strategic waterways b) Borders with various countries c) Crisscrossed by oil and gas pipeline| There is the transition paragraph to make a link between causes and effects blocks. Having looked at the causes (reasons) for being a suitable member for th e EU, let’s now look at the two main effects of winning admission to the EU: increase in the literacy rate and decrease in the unemployment rate. | * Essay Section II (Effects)Effect 1 a) Subsection b) Subsection| * Effects of Turkey’s potential membership to the EU. . The increase in literary rate among the young population a) More schools b) More opportunities for education2. Drop in the employment rate in Turkey a) New job opportunities| Conclusion * Summary of the main points (and looks to future)| Conclusion * The two main reasons for Turkey to win admission to the EU are its developing economy in addition to its geopolitical position which is like no other country in the Middle East. * If Turkey continues with the same speed of progress and by applying the EU criteria, there is no wonder that this date will be quite soon. TURKEY’S ADMISSION TO THE EU Turkey is a developing country with a great potential of human and non-human resources which are waiting to be exploited. With this potential, for some time Turkey has been trying to win admission as a EU member. Nowadays, this topic is top on the agenda. One must admit that Turkey has come a long way to reach its present condition and to become a suitable candidate for EU membership. There are two main reasons for Turkey to be such a good candidate in order to be admitted to the EU: its economic development and unique geopolitical position. First of all, in order to be accepted to the EU, Turkey has shown much progress in economy. Turkish leaders have solved many economic problems. As a consequence, the welfare rate in the country has increased. Similarly, the increase in the GDP has affected the economy. Therefore, the external debts have been paid. Secondly, Turkey is suitable for EU membership because of its unique geopolitical position. It not only sits astride strategic waterways by means of the Straits but also borders with the countries like Syria, Iraq, Iran and the former Soviet republics of Armenia and Georgia. As a result, this geopolitical position creates an enormous desire in the EU to accept Turkey as a strategic ally. Moreover, Turkey is a county crisscrossed by oil and gas pipelines. Thus, it attracts many businessmen for trade. Having looked at the causes (reasons) for being a suitable member for the EU, let’s now look at the two main effects of winning admission to the EU: increase in the literacy rate and decrease in the unemployment rate. One of the biggest effects of admission to the EU will be the increase in literacy rate among the young population. It is a well-known fact that some children in Turkey cannot have a good education and as a result do not know how to read and write. If Turkey is accepted, the literacy rate will start rising because the EU criteria in education will be applied in our country. As a result of these criteria, more schools will be built and more opportunities for education will be created. Therefore, the literacy rate will gradually increase over the years. Another effect of gaining admission to the EU will be seen in the drop in the unemployment rate in Turkey. The EU countries will provide new job opportunities for Turkish people. Since Turkish people will be allowed to freely move in European countries, they will be able to solve their problem of unemployment in these countries by providing them with their cheap labor force. In conclusion, the two main reasons for Turkey to win admission to the EU are its developing economy in addition to its geopolitical position which is like no other country in the Middle East. If these factors enable Turkey to get what it wants for a long time, its effects will be seen in not only the increase in the literacy rate but also the drop in the unemployment rate. We exactly know the reasons and results of this process; however, what we do not know is the date of admission. If Turkey continues with the same speed of progress and by applying the EU criteria, there is no wonder that this date will be quite soon. PRACTICE I: MAKING AN OUTLINE WOMEN’S LIBERATION Since the middle of this century, women around the world have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their traditional roles as housewives and mothers, women have joined together to create the so-called â€Å"women’s liberation movement. While the forces behind this international movement vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual, the basic causes sin the United States can be traced to three events: the development of effective birth-control methods, the invention of labor-saving for the home and the advent of World War II. The first cause of the liberation of women was the development of effective birth-control methods , freeing women from endless cycle of childbearing and rearing. As a result of having a choice as to when and if to bear children, women acquired the freedom and the time to pursue interests outside of the home. Because of the development of birth control, women could delay having children or avoid having them altogether, consequently, women had the opportunity to acquire an education and pursue a career. Another event was the development of mechanized labor-saving devices for the home, resulting in more leisure time and freedom for women. For example, fifty years ago, a housewife spent an average of twelve to fourteen hours per day doing housework. Dye to the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines and dishwashers, a housewife can now take care of her daily housework in about five hours. The final event that, at least in the United States, gave impetus to the liberation of women was World War II. During the war, most men were serving in the military. Consequently, women had to fill the vacancies in the labor force. Women by the thousands went to work in factories and then took over businesses for their absent husbands. This was a great change for the majority of American women, fort hey discovered that they could weld airplanes and manage businesses as well as change diapers and bake cookies. These three events planted the seeds of great change in society, and the effects of this change are being felt at all levels: in the family, in business, and in government. One of the biggest effects of the greater independence of women is being felt in the home. The traditional husband-wife relationship is undergoing a radical transformation. Because so many women are working, men are learning to share the household. One of the biggest effects of the greater independence of women is being felt in the home. The traditional husband-wife relationship is undergoing a radical transformation. Because so many women are working, men are learning to share the household tasks of cooking, cleaning and even caring for children. In some families, there has been a complete reversal of the traditional roles: the husband stays at home, while the wife earns the family’s income. It should be pointed out, however, that this is the exception, not the rule. In most families in the United States, the husband still earns most of the Money, and the wife does most of the housework. The effects of women’s liberation are being felt not only in the home but also on the job. More and more women are working, and they are demanding equal salaries and equally responsible positions. It is not uncommon for a woman to be the president of a Corporation these days. Many businesses encourage women to advance to high management positions, and every year, the nations’ schools produce more women doctors, lawyers and accountants. Politics and governments are still other areas that are feeling the effects of the women’s movement. Although the United States doesn’t appear ready to accept a woman president, as some countries of the world have, women are being elected to public office in increasing numbers. The United States currently has several women governors, which is the highest Office in a state. A few years ago, this would have been unthinkable. In conclusion, women in the United States are acquiring greater independence, which is causing sweeping changes in society — at home, at work, and in politics. While men may not be happy with these changes, they should always remember that it was they, the men, who created the conditions leading to the liberation of women: men made war, male scientists developed birth control, and businessman earned a lot of Money selling vacuum cleaners and dishwashers. WOMEN’S LIBERATION OUTLINE This is the pattern| This is how the sample outline looks| * Introduction * Introduction of general topic * Thesis statement * Specific areas to be covered in this essay| * Introduction| Essay section I (Causes) * Cause I a) Subsection b) Subsection * Cause II a) Subsection b) Subsection| * Causes of women’s liberation * _______________________ _______________________ * _______________________ _______________________ * _______________________ _______________________| There is the transition paragraph to make a link between causes and effects blocks. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________| Essay section II (Effects) * Effect 1 a) Subsection b) Subsection * Effect 2 a) Subsection b) Subsection * Effect 3 a) Subsection b) Subsection| * Effects of women’s liberation * ________________________________________________________________________________________ * ________________________________________________________________________________________ * ________________________________________________________________________________________| * Conclusion * Summary of main points (and look to future)| * Conclusion * _____________________________________________________________________________________| Make an outline for the causes and effects of teenag e smoking. I. Introduction Thesis:†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. II. Cause 1: III. Cause 2: IV. Cause 3: V. Transition Paragraph VI. Effect 1: VII. Effect 2: VIII. Effect 3: IX. Conclusion Paragraph Now, write an essay that discusses causes and effects of teenage smoking. EFFECTS OF WATCHING TOO MUCH TV Discoveries and invention of devices are always welcome till we, humans, find a way to abuse its benefits and be adversely affected by it. This was the case when Wilhelm Roentgen discovered x-rays and within five years, the British Army was using a mobile x-ray unit to locate bullets and shrapnel in wounded soldiers in Sudan. TV was also invented with positive thoughts in mind-there would be no national borders, education and communication would be worldwide, etc. However, we are now trying to overcome its physiological and psychological adverse effects on human beings. One of the physiological effects of watching TV in excessive amounts is eye-strain. It is true that there are specifications for watching TV; TV should be 5 m. away from the eye, the room should be adequately lit, TV should be placed at the same height with our eyes, etc. However, these do not prevent our eyes from getting tired if we keep watching TV for a long time. Another effect is obesity, which is widely observed in people who like watching TV and eating snacks everyday (there is even a term â€Å"TV snacks† to refer to fast food that is suitable for eating in front of the TV). TV is such a powerful machine that people cannot get away from it. It is addictive. Apart from the physiological effects, TV also causes psychological effects. One is a result of being exposed to violence. After seeing so many violent scenes on TV, people start considering violent actions normal and they lose their sensitivity to their environment. Partly connected to this effect, the interpersonal communication among people decreases. Being insensitive to the suffering of other people causes people to become alienated. Also, after coming home from work, people seek to relax in front of the TV, and generally people prefer watching TV to talking to each other. This issue is very important since lack of interpersonal relationships mostly end with divorces. Shortly, inventions are meant to be beneficial for human beings, if we know how to benefit from them. TV is one of such inventions that need to be used for the right purpose only-being educated and entertained for a reasonable (according to age) period of time. We may, then, be safe from or at least reduce the adverse physiological and psychological effects of watching TV too much. A Different Example of Block Organization: CAUSES THE CAUSES OF POVERTY IN MEXICO Are you aware that 20 million people in Mexico live on less than two dollars a day? Sixty million people, half the Mexican population, live in poverty, and twenty million of them live in extreme poverty. Most of the time, garbage is their food, and some days, they don’t even eat anything. This critical situation in Mexico is caused by individual, geographic and political factors. The purpose of this essay is to analyze these three main causes of poverty in Mexico. The first and immediate cause of poverty in Mexico is the individual condition. This cause refers to circumstances and characteristics of poor people. For example, the amount of education, skill, intelligence, health, and prejudice all have an influence on poverty. The lack of education is one of the most significant factors that contribute to poverty. There is no access to jobs for non-educated people. The second cause of poverty has to do with geography. For example, statistics show that people who live in rural areas far away from the cities are poorer. This is caused by the lack of communication and transportation in remote rural areas. Because of this, governments can’t provide essential services such as water, affordable food, primary health care, and education. People who live there are totally isolated from the rest of the society. The third and most significant cause of poverty in Mexico is the political economy of the country. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank-prescribed structural adjustment policies have been applied in Mexico because the government doesn’t carry out enough policies to encourage successful development. They cannot, for these international institutions lend money to Mexico on the condition that the nation open up its economy and cut social expenditures to repay the loans. The IMF and World Bank programs are supposed to reduce poverty, but actually they are increasing it. Unless the Mexican government works on the causes of the poverty which are the individual condition, the geographic factor, and the political economy of the country, the problem is going to get worse. Nobody likes to see poor children eating out of garbage cans. Mexico needs a new political economy designed by Mexican economists and politicians, people who are committed to Mexico and to the future of its society. CHAIN ORGANIZATION Another type of cause-and-effect analysis is the casual chain. Unlike the multiple cause-effect analyses, the causes and effects in a casual chain are always directly related; in fact, they are linked. In the casual chain, one effect can become a cause of another effect, which in turn becomes a cause of another effect, and so on. For example, let us say that a man had problems at work; as a result, he started to drink heavily. His heavy drinking eventually caused him to behave in an abusive way to his wife; his wife then alienated herself from him. His wife’s alienation caused him to feel even more alone and more of a failure; his depression caused him to decide for a divorce. The domino-like chain might be diagrammed as follows: problems at work cause drinking heavily effect cause abusive behavior toward wife ffect cause alienation of wife effect cause depression increase effect cause divorce effect The other major use of the casual chain is in science to analyze various kinds of cycles, biological or chemical chains, for example. Study the following essay, which analyzes a casual chain. See if the cause-effect relationships are clarified and explained. Below is an exampl e of an essay written in chain organization. UPSETTING THE BALANCE OF NATURE The members of a living community exist together in a particular, balanced relationship, or ecosystem. One animal species eats another animal species which in turn eats another. Over years, a balance is worked out among the plants and animals in a community and it remains basically stable. It is like a huge puzzle with all of the pieces in their proper places. However, at times this balance in nature is disturbed, resulting in a number of possibly unforeseen effects. Perhaps a disease results in the near extinction of one species, leaving another species with no natural predator. The result can be a terrific increase in that one species’ population. This could further result in the devastation of a shared food supply, which could in turn affect another species. It is possible for the disruption in the balance of nature to have natural causes: disease, drought, fire. Sometimes, however, human beings intervene in a natural environment, perhaps only slightly and with good intentions. The result is the same. The balance of nature becomes unbalanced and results in an entire chain reaction of unforeseen and unwanted effects. A good example of this occurred in the Antilles in the 1870’s. Sugar cane was a major crop there, but rats were eating and nesting in the cane, causing a great deal of damage. The mongoose, a one-and-a-half-foot-long mammal of the East Indies, was known to be an excellent rat hunter. Several males and females were imported in 1872, and laws were established that forbade the killing of them or their offspring. The mongoose flourished in the Antilles. After ten years it had multiplied abundantly and had significantly reduced the rat population. Consequently, damage to the cane fields was greatly reduced. It seemed that the scheme to add another piece to the ecological puzzle in the Antilles had been successful. However, that is not the end of the story. The influence of the mongoose did not stop there. As the rat population decreased and the mongoose population increased, the mongoose needed to enlarge its menu. It attacked young pigs and goats, game, poultry, and began to destroy bananas, maize and pineapples. Because the mongoose could not be hunted, its numbers increased rapidly, and it became a terrible past. All of the indigenous animals suffered damage. The mongoose learned to enjoy the native birds, snakes, lizards, turtles and their eggs. Now, it was specifically these animals that kept the local insect population in check. There were in the ecosystem of the Antilles a number of beetles, borers, and other insects that lived on and in the sugar cane. Until that time, they had not caused significant damage to the cane, because they were the natural food of so many local animals that kept their numbers down. However, as the birds, snakes, lizards, and turtles disappeared, the insect population began to increase. With no natural predators to keep them in check, the insects began to do more and more damage to the cane fields. Finally, the people of the Antilles realized that the introduction of the mongoose had caused a finely and delicately balanced system to go awry. The law against killing the mongoose was rescinded, and the mongoose population was reduced. Gradually, the different members of the plant and animal community came back into balance with each other and equilibrium was reestablished. However, the human members of the community would not soon forget that a single change in an ecosystem can cause a chain reaction that results in completely unforeseen and sometimes unwanted effects. PRACTICE: MAKING AN OUTLINE The following short essay describes a simple CHAIN reaction. SAD When winter arrives, some people get sad, even depressed. Doctors have recently started to study the causes of a medical disorder that they have appropriately named SAD, or seasonal affective disorder. People who suffer from SAD become very depressed during the winter months. Their depression appears to be the result of a decrease in the amount of sunlight they are exposed to. Doctors theorize that decreased sunlight affects the production of melatonin, a hormone manufactured in the brain, and serotonin, a chemical that helps transmit nerve impulses. Depression may result from ensuing (following immediately) imbalance of these two substances in the body. Also doctors believe that a decrease in the amount of sunlight the body receives may cause a disturbance in the body’s natural clock ( normal cycle of sleep and wakefulness) which could, in turn, result in symptoms such as lethargy (tiredness), oversleeping, weight gain, anxiety, and irritability—all signs of depression. Since absence of light seems to be the cause of this disorder, a daily dose of light appears to be the cure. Doctors advise patients to sit in front of a special light box that stimulates natural light for a few hours every day. In conclusion, the depressive effect of low sunlight levels may help explain the high number of depressed people in Scandinavian countries, and more importantly, it may suggest a remedy (cure). When the days grow short, turn on the lights. A) Read the essay above and answer these questions. 1. What causes the days to grow shorter? ________________________________________________________ 2. ———— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- What is the effect of shorter days? ————————————————- 3. What does this cause? _________________________________________________________ 4. What other change results from a decrease in the amount of light? _________________________________________________________ 5. What is the final result? _________________________________________________________ B) Fill in the boxes to complete the flowchart, which illustrates the cause and effect chain described in the model essay â€Å"SAD†. WINTER| | Body produces less| Lethargy, oversleeping, weight, anxiety, irritability| CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY CHECKLIST Check the appropriate box. YES NO 1. Does your essay have general statements in the introduction paragraph? | | | 2. Does your essay have a thesis statement that indicates the cause effect style and expresses the central idea of your essay in the introduction paragraph? | | | 3. Does your essay include both the causes and effects of the topic you wrote about? | | | 4. Have you analyzed the causes with sufficient supporting details using cause effect structure words? | | | 5. Have you analyzed the effects with How to cite Causality and Effect, Papers

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